Errors and manipulations of rhetoric and logical thinking
Appeal to the Mind
- Appeal to Anonymous Authority – Using evidence from an unnamed “expert” or “study” or generalised group (like “scientists”) to claim something is true.
- Appeal to Authority – Claiming something is true because an unqualified or untrustworthy “expert” says it is.
- Appeal to Common Practice – Claiming something is true because it’s commonly practised.
- Appeal to Ignorance – A claim is true simply because it has not been proven false (or false because it has not been proven true).
- Appeal to Incredulity – Because a claim sounds unbelievable, it must not be true.
- Appeal to Money – Supposing that, if someone is rich or something is expensive, then it affects the truth of the claim.
- Appeal to Novelty – Supposing something is better because it is now or newer.
- Appeal to Popular Belief – Claiming something is true because the majority of people believe it.
- Appeal to Probability – Assuming because something could happen, it will inevitably happen.
- Appeal to Tradition – Claiming something is true because it’s (apparently) always been that way.