Errors and manipulations of rhetoric and logical thinking
Appeal to Emotions
- Appeal to Consequences of a Belief – Arguing a belief is false because it implies something you’d rather not believe.
- Appeal to Fear – An argument is made by increasing fear and prejudice towards the positing side.
- Appeal to Flattery – Using an irrelevant compliment to slip in an unfounded claim which is accepted along with the compliment.
- Appeal to Nature – Making your claim seem more true by drawing a comparison with the “good” natural world.
- Appeal to Pity – Attempt to induce to sway opponents.
- Appeal to Ridicule – Presenting the opponents argument in a way that makes it appear absurd.
- Appeal to Spite – Dismissing a claim by appealing to personal bias against the claimant.
- Appeal to Wishful Thinking – Suggesting a claim is true or false just because you strongly hope it is.
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