Cognitive Bias

Ever since Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky formalized the concept of cognitive bias in 1972, most empirical evidence has given credence to the claim that our brain is incapable of improving our decision-making abilities. Cognitive biases or the tendency to think in certain ways that lead to systematic devotions from a standard rationality or good judgement, colour almost every aspect of our daily lives.

Here are 10 learning biasis :

  • Confirmation Bias – The tendency to easily accept information that confirms your point of view and reject information that does not support it.
  • Anchoring Bias – The tendency to place excessive weight or importance on one piece of information, often the first piece of information you learned about a topic.
  • Dunning – Kruger Effect – The tendency for incompetent people to overestimate their competence, and very competent people to underestimate their competence.
  • Curse of Knowledge Bias – When well informed people are unable to look at an issue from the perspective of a less informed person.
  • Functional Fixedness – This bias limits a person to utilising an object or idea in only the way it is traditionally used.
  • Mere Exposure Effect – The tendency to like something just because you are familiar with it.
  • Not Invented Here Bias – The tendency to discount information, ideas, standards, or products developed outside of a certain group.
  • Reactance – The urge to do the opposite of what you are asked to do in order to preserve your freedom of choice.
  • Status Quo Bias – The tendency to want things to stay relatively the same as they have always been.
  • System Justification Bias – The tendency to try to actively maintain the status quo.

Reference : https://elearninginfographics.com/cognitive-bias-learning-infographic/

23 Comments Add yours

  1. The various cognitive biases detailed here seem to be varying expressions of either an underdeveloped or overdeveloped ego. The mind is an expression of the self, and if the self is not in proper harmony with this strange and wondrous world in which she finds herself then the mind’s cognitive abilities will suffer in one way or another.

    Liked by 3 people

    1. Garima says:

      Thank you for sharing your view. Egocentric bias is the tendency to rely too heavily on one’s own perspective and/or have a higher opinion of oneself than reality. It appears to be the result of the psychological need to satisfy one’s ego and to be advantageous for memory consolidation. Some of them on the post could be under these categories.

      Liked by 5 people

      1. I agree. Psychology ultimately is a reverberation of the spiritual life, and cognitive ability (or lack thereof) is a reverberation of the psychological. The holistic interdependence of all realms of human condition and personality is key. The synthesist understands this, and this is part of the reason why I have found much to value and to love about your blog.

        Liked by 2 people

      2. Garima says:

        Ah thank you for your kind words.

        Liked by 1 person

  2. joliesattic says:

    Very interesting breakdown. It’s easy to point a finger at the other guy and say but that’s not I, yet in doing so, there we are.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Garima says:

      When people hear the word bias, many if not most will think of either racial prejudice or news organizations that slant their coverage to favor one political position over another. Present bias, by contrast, is an example of cognitive bias—the collection of faulty ways of thinking that is apparently hardwired into the human brain.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. joliesattic says:

        Yes. You said it better. Thank you

        Liked by 1 person

      2. GS says:

        🙌🏼🙌🏼

        Like

  3. richlakin says:

    Very interesting piece.most of these are displayed at meetings I’ve attended!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Garima says:

      Designing “mindful meetings” can help address bias and create team processes to flush out differing perspectives.

      Like

  4. minerva996 says:

    Very interesting. I learned a lot due to you. Thanks! 👏

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Garima says:

      Researchers have found that the brain uses snap decision-making to protect us from perceived threat. Over the course of history, organisms that placed more urgency on avoiding threats than they did on maximizing opportunities were more likely to survive and pass on their genes. Over time, the prospect of loss has become a more powerful motivator of behavior than the promise of gains.

      In addition, our perceptions are formed by our experiences, culture, upbringing, and messages received through mass media. The challenge for us today is that these unconscious decisions distort our judgment and can lead to stereotyping and bad decision making in our volunteer programs.

      Bias isn’t just annoying, though. It has real business consequences. A recent McKinsey study of more than 1,000 major business investments showed that when organizations worked at reducing the effect of cognitive bias in decision making processes, they achieved returns up to seven percent points higher.

      Like

  5. Thank you for posting this!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Garima says:

      Most welcome. Did you find it useful?

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Yes, especially in trying to have constructive conversations in regards to the current issues that are going on in the country.

        Liked by 1 person

      2. GS says:

        Yes I agree.

        Liked by 1 person

    1. GS says:

      Cognitive biases are ways of thinking about and perceiving the world that may not necessarily reflect reality. We may think we experience the world around us with perfect objectivity, but this is rarely (if ever) the case. Each and every one of us sees things differently based on our preconceptions, past experiences, and environmental or social factors, but this doesn’t necessarily mean that the way we think or feel about something is truly representative of reality.

      Simply put, cognitive biases are the distortions of reality through which we view the world.

      Like

  6. An Aki says:

    Very informative post. Thank you for sharing

    Liked by 1 person

    1. GS says:

      The effects of biases do not play out just on an individual level. Last year, President Donald Trump decided to send more troops to Afghanistan, and thereby walked right into the sunk-cost fallacy. He said, “Our nation must seek an honorable and enduring outcome worthy of the tremendous sacrifices that have been made, especially the sacrifices of lives.” Sunk-cost thinking tells us to stick with a bad investment because of the money we have already lost on it; to finish an unappetizing restaurant meal because, after all, we’re paying for it; to prosecute an unwinnable war because of the investment of blood and treasure. In all cases, this way of thinking is rubbish.

      Like

  7. moragnoffke says:

    I enjoyed reading your post. You have inspired me and I will refer to your blog when I post, and let you know when I am posting.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. GS says:

      Thank you in advance. cognitive biases are caused by the imperfect way in which we process information and make decisions, and primarily as a result of our tendency to use mental shortcuts that allow us to think faster but also make us more likely to make mistakes.

      Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.